WeatherTalk Blog

Preliminary Climate Summary for September

6 days 19 hours ago
Preliminary Climate Summary for September:Mostly warmer than normal weather dominated our September weather with nearly two-thirds of all days bringing above average temperatures. Overall, most climate stations will report an average monthly temperature from 2°F to 4°F above normal. Extremes for the month ranged from 99°F at Lamberton (Redwood County) on the 21st to 21°F at Brimson (St Louis County) on the 28th. Over 50 climate stations reported at least one day with a maximum temperature of 90°F or greater. Within the state climate network during the month 49 daily high maximum temperature records were tied or broken. Despite the overall warmer than normal month, at least 70 climate stations reported frost over September 28-29, including as far south as Austin (Mower County). About a hundred climate stations have yet to report first frost.

Rainfall was less than normal across the state except for some northeastern and north-central counties. Grand Portage (Cook County) reported the most with 5.04 inches, but many areas reported between 1 and 2 inches. Some climate stations reported less than 1 inch of total rainfall, a near record or record low amount. Some of these included:
MSP 0.23 inches record driest
Theilman (Wabasha County) 0.68 inches, record driest
Farmington (Dakota County) 0.22 inches, 2nd driest
Minnesota City (Winona County) 0.29 inches, 2nd driest
Wheaton (Traverse County) 0.22 inches, 5th driest
Redwood Falls (Redwood County) 0.41 inches, 5th driest
New Ulm (Brown County) 0.44 inches, 7th driest
Austin (Mower County) 0.60 inches, 6th driest

As a result of the drier areas of the state getting drier in September, the regions of Severe Drought centered around the Twin Cities and extending southwest, expanded a bit, but the region of Moderate Drought expanded more to the west and northwest and now encompass about a quarter of the state landscape.

Wind conditions in September were on a par with earlier months of the year. Wind gusts of 30 mph or greater prevailed anywhere from 13 to 15 days during the month.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:

The biggest weather news of the week was Hurricane Ian and its powerful impact on the state of Florida when it came ashore on September 28th just north of Fort Myers. As one of the strongest hurricanes to hit the SE USA, it brought record setting winds, tidal surges, and rainfall amounts to many areas. Many areas reported sustained wind speeds of 80 mph or greater and some reported sustained winds of 120 mph or greater. Many climate stations reported rainfall amounts between 10 and 20 inches. Kissimmee (Osceola County) in central Florida just south of Orlando reported a new all-time rainfall for September 29th of 18.60 inches, while Union Park (Orange County) between Orlando and Cape Canaveral reported a record 17 inches. Many Florida rivers also went to record flood stage. The Weather Underground filed many reports on this hurricane.

Meanwhile, Canadians in the Atlantic Province are still reeling from the impacts of Storm Fiona last weekend. There was widespread coastal damage to property and infrastructure, with estimate insured losses ranging from 300 to 700 million Canadian dollars. According to Reuters the Environment Canada Agency may need to reconsider more aggressive climate adaptation strategies for their upcoming November report.

In the Western Pacific Ocean Typhoon Noru brought severe weather to the Philippines, and then to portions of Vietnam and Thailand. This typhoon brought 8-12 inches of rainfall to many places and was reported on by the BBC.

MPR listener question:

Can you comment on any expected weather pattern changes that might come to us in Minnesota as a result of the passage of Hurricane Ian this week over the southeastern USA?

Answer:

There is no 100 percent correlation between hurricane striking the southeastern states and impacts on weather patterns across Minnesota. There are however historical cases where the landfall of strong hurricanes produced significant weather impacts in Minnesota. Sometimes when strong hurricanes come ashore in Texas or Louisiana, residual moisture aloft migrates as far north as Minnesota and brings us significant rainfall. In addition there have been cases when strong hurricanes coming ashore in other southeastern states (MS, AL, GA, or FL) have produced a change in the jet stream pattern which allows for cold air intrusion from Canada to migrate further south across Minnesota, bringing us several days of below normal temperatures.

Twin Cities Almanac for September 30th:

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 67 degrees F (plus or minus 10 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 48 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for September 30th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 87 degrees F in 1897; lowest daily maximum temperature of 44 degrees F in 1985; lowest daily minimum temperature of 26 degrees F in 1939; highest daily minimum temperature of 68 degrees F in 1878; record precipitation of 1.06 inches in 2007. Record snowfall is 0.1 inches in 1961..

Average dew point for September 30th is 43°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 66°F in 1971; and the minimum dew point on this date is 18 degrees F in 1974 .

All-time state records for September 30th:


The state record high temperature for this date is 93 degrees F at Montevideo (Lac Qui Parle County) in 1897. The state record low temperature for this date is 10 degrees F at Big Falls (Koochiching County) in 1930. The state record precipitation for this date is 5.00 inches at Cook (St Louis County) in 1995. Record snowfall is 3.0 inches at Isabella (Lake County) in 1985.

Past Weather Features:


Very warm weather on September 30, 1897 blanketed Minnesota. Temperatures were in the 70s and 80s F on most places, and nine southern and western counties reported afternoon highs in the 90s F.

September 30, 1930 brought a hard freeze to many northern areas of the state where low temperatures ranges from 10°F to 17°F. It froze as far south as New Ulm (Brown County) ending the growing season.

A somewhat rare early snowstorm crossed northern Minnesota over September 30 to October 1 of 1985. It dropped 2 to 6 inches across many northeastern counties. Isabella (Lake County) residents were shoveling snow on October 1st as 11.5 inches had fallen. Whew!

Slow moving thunderstorms brought heavy rains to northern Minnesota communities over September 30 to October 1 of 1995. Many observers reported 2 to 4 inches of rainfall, with some street flooding. Cook (St Louis County) reported a record 5 inches on September 30th, the largest single day rainfall in their climate record.

Outlook: 

Warm and dry for Saturday through Monday. Chance for rain on Tuesday and then much cooler for Wednesday through Friday of next week, with another chance for frosts.

Mark Seeley

Warm and Dry Start to September

3 weeks 6 days ago
Warm and Dry Start to September:Temperatures so far are averaging 3 to 5 degrees warmer than normal around the state over the first 8 days of the month. Seventeen climate stations have reported at least one day in the 90s F so far this month, while only Brimson (St Louis County) has reported a frost so far.

Until Friday of this week rainfall has been scarce to absent in most places. Only a few spots have been grazed by spotty showers so far, mostly in southeastern Minnesota. The overall pattern of dryness and drought within the state has remained fairly constant since the last week of August. Amounts from Friday’s rain showers and thunderstorms are expected to range from 0.50 inches to 1.50 inches in many areas, welcome moisture for most areas of the state.

Unlike earlier months this year, winds have been relative mild so far this month, with very few wind gusts of 30 mph or greater and a number of hours of calm.

Charles Dickens and “the Queen’s Weather”: In the mid-19th Century Charles Dickens coined the phrase “Queen’s Weather” to describe a cloudless sky and a day with brilliant sun that brightened everyone’s spirits. Just as we appreciate a cherished memory that is enhanced by beautiful weather (a baptism, wedding, birthday celebration, parade, or fishing trip), I suspect that the memory of Queen Elizabeth II will evoke many uplifting memories for millions of people because of her stabilizing influence through challenging times.
Weekly Weather Potpourri: The BBC Weather Center reported this week that EU scientists who analyzed data from the Copernicus satellite found that this summer was the warmest ever for Western Europe. In July temperatures reached as high as 104°F in England, and as high as 116°F in Portugal. Many records were also set in France. August was the warmest in history for many Western European countries as well.

In the Western Pacific Ocean Tropical Storm Muifa was expected to become a typhoon as it moves to the northwest towards Taiwan this weekend. It was expected to graze the northern parts of that island early next week with heavy rains.

According to the Weather Channel northern portions of Hurricane Kay in the Eastern Pacific Ocean may bring some significant rainfalls to southern California this weekend. This would provide some relief from drought conditions there. The National Hurricane Center forecasts that 2 to 6 inches of rainfall may occur over far Southern California landscapes by Sunday.

This week’s AGU-EOS Bulletin contains an interesting article about the aftermath of the asteroid impact that destroyed the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Though there were immediate and tremendously widespread destructive consequences from the impact, there was a great deal of extinction brought by the following climate change, primarily produced by volumes of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere which cooled the planet dramatically.

MPR listener question: Chatting with the man who will paint my garage this autumn. He said he has to paint when the temperature is above 50°F during the day, and usually after November he does no more outside painting until April. What does climate say about painting outdoors in Minnesota during the autumn season?
Answer: The average maximum daily temperature starts to dip below 50°F in far northern Minnesota (International Falls for example) about mid-October. Conversely in southern Minnesota (Winona for example) the average maximum temperature remains above 50°F through the first week of November. So there roughly a three-week spread in this climate characteristic across the state. With climate change in Minnesota over recent years we have even seen some 50°F days prevail into early December in some years, but obviously we cannot count on that to happen.
Word of the Week: Biofog This refers to a type of steamfog that results when a very cold air mass comes into contact with the warm moist air which usually surrounds humans or animals. It is usually very local in nature and sometimes can be seen around livestock feedlots in the fall in Minnesota. Another very small scale example is when people exit from a health club or gymnasium in the evening and the warm moist air from inside the building meets the cold night air near the doorways. Sports fans may have memories or visions of what this looks like as a result of seeing Viking, Lion, Bear or Packer football players emerge from the locker room at halftime. There are also some historical references to this in literature which describes massive steam clouds surrounding buffalo herds on the great plains during 19th Century.
Twin Cities Almanac for September 9th: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 76 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 57 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for September 9th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 95 degrees F in 1947; lowest daily maximum temperature of 55 degrees F in 1929; lowest daily minimum temperature of 38 degrees F in 1883; highest daily minimum temperature of 76 degrees F in 1931; record precipitation of 1.79 inches in 1900. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for September 9th is 55°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 75°F in 1964; and the minimum dew point on this date is 33 degrees F in 1976.

All-time state records for September 9th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 105 degrees F at Beardsley (Big Stone County) in 1931. The state record low temperature for this date is 19 degrees F at Embarrass (St Louis County) in 2006. The state record precipitation for this date is 4.75 inches at Gunflint Lake (Cook County) in 1977. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.
Past Weather Features:

A storm enhanced by the remnants of the famous Galveston hurricane of 1900 brought heavy rainfall to portions of Minnesota over September 9-10, 1900. Many areas in the southern half of Minnesota reported 3 to 5 inches of rainfall with over 7 inches falling in Bird Island (Renville County). This heavy rainfall delayed harvesting activity of farmers until late in the month.

The warmest September 9th in state history was in 1931 when most areas of the state reported high temperatures in the 90s F. Climate stations in Big Stone, Chippewa, Lac Qui Parle, Redwood, Brown, Yellow Medicine, and Wilkin Counties reported temperatures of 100°F or greater.

Widespread frosts occurred across the northern third of Minnesota on the morning of September 9, 2009. Morning lows ranged from 19°F (at Embarrass) to 32°F (at Itasca State Park), bringing a sharp end to the growing season. The high temperature at Bruno (Pine County) only reached 53°F that day.

Outlook: 

Cooler over the weekend with lingering chances for scattered showers in southeastern areas of the state early on Saturday. Warming up to near normal by Tuesday of next week with a chance for showers again by Thursday.

Mark Seeley

Climate Summary for August of 2022

1 month ago
Climate Summary for August of 2022:Most climate observers reported a mean monthly temperature that was very close to normal, or in some cases 1°F to 2°F above normal. Extremes for the month ranged from 101°F at Marshall (Lyon County) on the 3rd (which was a new daily record high for them) to 39°F at several northeastern climate stations on the 11th.

Adding the August temperature statistics to those of June and July shows that most areas of Minnesota recorded a mean summertime (Jun-Aug) temperature that was 1 to 2°F above normal. On a statewide basis, 11 of the last 12 summers have been warmer than normal across Minnesota.

Most areas of the state reported above normal rainfall for the month of August, except for some observers in northwestern, west-central, and southwestern Minnesota. Wetter areas of the state were generally in eastern counties. In fact some observers in Houston, Washington, Steele, Fillmore, Dakota, Winona, and Olmsted Counties reported 7 to 9 inches of rainfall during the month. In contrast, at Crookston (Polk County) only 0.57 inches of rainfall occurred while at Red Lake Falls (Red Lake County) they reported only 0.94 inches. Within the statewide climate network, there were 41 new daily record rainfalls reported during the month, including a remarkable 4.32 inches at Cambridge (Isanti County) on the 18th.

Adding the August rainfall statistics to those of June and July shows that only portions of northeastern and southeastern Minnesota had above normal rainfall for the summer season (Jun-Aug). Most other places report less than normal rainfall.

Strong thunderstorms moved across portions of the state on August 2, 6, 12, 19, and 27. Some of these storms brought very strong winds as well. The National Weather Service put together at summary of the storms on August 27 which included 5 weak tornadoes. But overall, August was not as windy as earlier months of the year, delivering few days with wind gust over 30 mph.

Overall areas determined to be experiencing drought at the beginning of the month remained stable or even shrunk in size by the end of the month. About 20 percent of the state landscape remains abnormally dry for the year.

MPR State Fair Minnesota Weather Quiz Broadcast: It’s time once again to test how much you know about Minnesota weather and climate. Cathy Wurzer and I presented the annual Minnesota State Fair Weather Quiz Event on Minnesota Public Radio News and Information Service from noon to 1pm August 25, 2022. It is posted on the MPR web site if you want to test your knowledge you can take the quiz there. The quiz has questions related to Minnesota history, recent weather events, record weather events, weather jargon, and climate change. Have fun!

Weekly Weather Potpourri: The Capitol Weather Gang at the Washington Post featured an article about the Heat Wave in western states, especially California, that is expected to persist throughout the weekend. Temperatures will push 110°F to 115°F in many areas. Death Valley will see temperatures from 120°F to 125°F. The Heat Wave is expected to break by next Monday or Tuesday.

In the Western Pacific Ocean Typhoon Hinnamnor was being closely monitored as it aimed for Okinawa this week. Sustained winds were as high as 135 mph, producing sea wave heights of 50 feet. It brought heavy rains to Okinawa and was expected to head towards Japan over the weekend.

Meanwhile the Atlantic Ocean Basin was becoming more active this week with the formation of Tropical Storm Danielle. The National Hurricane Center was tracking this storm and also watching two more areas where tropical storm development could occur.

A recent study from scientists at the University of Washington and Harvard University finds that with continued climate change, even if held to 2.0°C by aggressive mitigation efforts, will call a 3 to10 fold increase in Heat Waves for many areas in the midlatitudes. This will expose many more millions of people to health risks multiple times during the year.
MPR listener question: I know that many areas of Minnesota, especially in the north, record their first autumn frost during September. But has anyone ever reported a morning low temperature in the single digits? Also do you think September will generally be warmer or colder than normal this year?

Answer: There is no record of a single digit low temperature being measured in Minnesota during the month of September. The closest to that was a reading of 10°F at Thorhult (Beltrami County) on September 22, 1974 and a similar reading at Big Falls (Koochiching County) on September 30, 1930. The vast majority of climate outlook models for September favor a warmer than normal month for Minnesota. In fact, this month started with 12 climate stations reporting afternoon high temperatures of 90°F or greater on September 1st (Thursday).

Twin Cities Almanac for September 2nd: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 78 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 59 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for September 2nd:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 97 degrees F in 1937; lowest daily maximum temperature of 55 degrees F in 1952; lowest daily minimum temperature of 42 degrees F in 1974; highest daily minimum temperature of 76 degrees F in 1953; record precipitation of 1.97 inches in 2000. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for September 2nd is 56°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 75°F in 1961; and the minimum dew point on this date is 29 degrees F in 1974.

All-time state records for September 2nd:
The state record high temperature for this date is 103 degrees F at Beardsley (Big Stone County) in 1929. The state record low temperature for this date is 22 degrees F at Saw Bill Camp (Cook County) in 1935. The state record precipitation for this date is 5.91 inches at Halstad (Norman County) in 1957. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.

Past Weather Features:


September 2 of 1929 was probably the hottest in state history as most areas reported afternoon temperatures in the 90s F. In western Minnesota, climate observers reported temperatures over 100°F in Big Stone, Lac Qui Parle, and Traverse Counties. The overnight low at Wheaton was a warm 78°F.

September 2 of 1946 was the coldest in state history with 30 climate stations reporting morning frosts. Several places also reported morning lows in the mid 20s F. The daytime high temperature barely reached 50°F at Ada (Norman County) that day.

Central and northern Minnesota citizens saw a very wet start to September in 1957. Over the first three days thunderstorms brought heavy rains, high winds, and even some hail. Many observers reported over 2.5 inches of rainfall and some up to 5 inches. Some roads in northwestern Minnesota were closed due to flooding.

Outlook: 

Sunny with near seasonal temperatures for Saturday and Sunday. A bit cooler than normal start on Sunday. Then warming up on Monday, with mostly above normal temperatures all of next week under mostly sunny skies.

Mark Seeley

The Wettest Night at the State Fair Remembered

1 month 1 week ago
The Wettest Night at the State Fair Remembered:Forty-five years ago, August 30, 1977, is long remembered by Minnesota State Fair goers as a traumatic and very wet evening. The weather became cloudy hour by hour and the dew point rose gradually until it was an uncomfortable 70°F by early evening. Temperatures were in the 70s F with moderate south winds and a chance for thunderstorms in the forecast.

As the Grandstand show got underway it began to rain, at first lightly, then heavier. (I think Mac Davis was the featured entertainment). Between 8 and 9 pm the rainfall intensified, and many began to leave the Grandstand as well as the Fairgrounds. Between the hours of 9 and 10 pm nearly 3 inches of rain fell, flooding the streets and sidewalks. Visibility during the heaviest rainfall was just a few feet, making it difficult to find your way to the Fairground exits.

There was widespread flooding all around the Twin Cities, especially from the Fairgrounds south toward Bloomington and Richfield, where a total of 5 to 7 inches of rain occurred between 8pm and midnight. Many highways were flooded and in some areas vehicles were abandoned. The 7.28 inches of rainfall recorded at MSP Airport remained the greatest single day rainfall total until July 23, 1987 when 9.15 inches fell over a 6 hour period.

The next day saw very low attendance at the State Fair as most workers were simply trying to put things back together and recover from the storm damage. Over the history of the State Fair there have been relatively few storms that brought disruption or sent people searching for shelter. The August 30, 1977 flash flood remains a singularity in its severity and impact.

MPR State Fair Minnesota Weather Quiz Broadcast:
It’s time once again to test how much you know about Minnesota weather and climate. Cathy Wurzer and I presented the annual Minnesota State Fair Weather Quiz Event on Minnesota Public Radio News and Information Service from noon to 1pm August 25, 2022. It is posted on the MPR web site if you want to test your knowledge you can take the quiz there. The quiz has questions related to Minnesota history, recent weather events, record weather events, weather jargon, and climate change. Have fun!

Weekly Weather Potpourri:
This week’s AGU-EOS Bulletin describes a study that showed a variety of infectious diseases have been aggravated by climate change. “Warming temperatures, changes in precipitation, and floods worsened the highest numbers of diseases. These factors were followed by other hazards associated with climate change, including fires, storms, sea level rise, ocean climate change, heat waves, drought, and changes to land cover. Sifting through more than 77,000 titles in the scholarly literature, researchers found that warming stood out as a key escalator for infectious diseases.”

The NOAA National Weather Service at Dallas/Fort Worth reported on the heavy rainfall and flooding earlier this week that closed many roads and highways, as well as flooding many homes and businesses. Areas around these cities and east towards Canton reported 6 to 10 inches of rainfall from Sunday to Tuesday, with the National Weather Service reporting over 12 inches in some cases. Fortunately, drier weather is expected into the weekend.

From a recent ecological study published by scientists from Denmark, Norway, and the United Kingdom, indications are that some smaller species of mammals may be more threatened than larger ones by the impact of extreme weather events produced from climate change. “Using 486 long-term population records of 157 mammal species, the authors show that species with a short life span and large litters are more affected, either positively or negatively, by extreme weather events than are species with a long life span and few offspring. This suggests that these "fast" species may require particular conservation attention, to avoid extinction due to the increased frequency and magnitude of extreme events.”

The Weather Underground features an interesting retrospective of the impact of Hurricane Andrew 30 years ago in south Florida. Andrew was the first hurricane to inflict a billion dollars or more in damages in the USA. It had a huge impact on changing the way Florida prepares for hurricanes.
MPR listener question: We have heard you talk a great deal about the high winds this year around Minnesota. We were wondering for the Twin Cities how many days this year has the average wind speed been less than 5 mph? Seems like hardly any.
Answer: Based on Twin Cities climate data, there have been only 17 days this year when the average daily wind speed has been 5 mph or less. That is about 7 percent of the time. Very low indeed!

Twin Cities Almanac for August 26th:
The average MSP high temperature for this date is 79 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 61 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for August 26th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 97 degrees F in 2013; lowest daily maximum temperature of 61 degrees F in 1940; lowest daily minimum temperature of 44 degrees F in 1968; highest daily minimum temperature of 80 degrees F in 2013; record precipitation of 2.04 inches in 2005. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for August 26th is 59°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 75°F in 1990; and the minimum dew point on this date is 35 degrees F in 1934.

All-time state records for August 26th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 103 degrees F at Luverne (Rock County) in 1973. The state record low temperature for this date is 23 degrees F at Roseau (Roseau County) in 1915. The state record precipitation for this date is 6.72 inches at Stewart (McLeod County) in 1994. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.
Past Weather Features:
By far the coldest August 26th in state history was in 1915 when 20 Minnesota climate stations reported frost. Many northern Minnesota stations reported morning lows in the 20s F. The afternoon high temperature at Duluth only reached 54°F.

August 26, 1976 brought mid-summer temperatures to most of the state with afternoon highs in the 90s F as far north as Walker. Milan, Minneota, Browns Valley, and Madison are broke 100°F.

Strong thunderstorms migrated across central Minnesota over August 26, 1994 bringing 3 to 6 inches of rainfall. Many roads were flooded from Cambridge, west past Mille Lacs and up toward Ottertail. The storm also brought some hail and damaging winds.

Outlook:
Temperatures warming up this weekend with a chance for showers and thunderstorms. Continuing chance for showers on Monday. Then cooler temperatures for Tuesday through Thursday with temperatures closer to normal.





Mark Seeley

Spotty But Heavy Rainfalls Continue

1 month 2 weeks ago
Spotty But Heavy Rainfalls Continue:This week brought more heavy rainfalls to some areas of the state, especially in the north. Many areas of the state saw 1 to 2 inches of rainfall on August 16, 17, and 18. Some long-term climate stations even reported daily record rainfalls, including:
Big Falls (Koochiching County) with 2.40 inches on the 16th
Winnibigoshish Dam (Itasca County) with 3.11 inches on the 17th
And on the 18th new record rainfalls were reported from Mora (Kanabec County) with 2.14 inches, Wright (Carlton County) with 2.70 inches, and Cambridge (Isanti County) with 4.32 inches.

With the heavier rains in northern Minnesota this month, some Minnesota communities like International Falls, Chisholm, Thorhult, Tower, and Grand Portage remain on a pace to record one of their wettest years in history.

Overall total rainfalls of 3 inches or greater have fallen this month over about 20 to 30 percent of the state helping to hold the drought areas in check. About 12 percent of the state landscape remains in Moderate to Severe Drought according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. Drought has been more widespread and extreme in the central and southern Plains States.

Despite some wide variation week to week, temperatures so far this month have averaged close to the monthly normal. Extremes for the month so far range from 101°F at Marshall (Lyon County) on the 3rd to just 39°F at Brimson (St Louis County) on the 12th.
MPR State Fair Minnesota Weather Quiz Broadcast: It’s time once again to test how much you know about Minnesota weather and climate. Cathy Wurzer and I will present the annual Minnesota State Fair Weather Quiz Event on Minnesota Public Radio News and Information Service from noon to 1pm August 25, 2022. We will be located on the State Fairgrounds at the MPR booth on the corner of Judson and Nelson. The quiz will also be posted on the MPR web site, so if you cannot be there, but want to test your knowledge you can go to the web site. The quiz has questions related to Minnesota history, recent weather events, record weather events, weather jargon, and climate change. Have fun!

Weekly Weather Potpourri: The NOAA Climate Prediction Center release a new fall season outlook this week. For the September through November period, the outlook models favor warmer than normal and drier than normal conditions to prevail across Minnesota, especially in the southern half of the state.

According to Reuters mountainous portions of the South Island of New Zealand received up to 19 inches of rainfall over last Wednesday through Friday, sending a torrent of water downstream which flooded many towns and villages. Many homes were evacuated in short order from the flash flooding that occurred as an “atmospheric river” of water vapor fed into the storms causing record-setting rainfalls in many areas.

A recent paper published in the journal Nature by scientists from Cambridge documents success with a floating lightweight, leaf-like structure which converts solar energy with efficiencies that are scalable enough to consider as alternative clean fuel sources. These could be deployed in sufficient numbers on oceans and waterways to produce another option for generating solar based fuel systems to compete with other energy sources.

This week’s AGU-EOS Bulletin features an article about the effects of wildfires on snowpack in the western states of the USA. A recent study shows that in vast areas where wildfires have occurred the water content of the winter snowpack is no longer as great as it was in the past and the melting of the seasonal snowpack has become more accelerated than in the past. This has may have implications for reservoir water supplies in many areas.

MPR listener question: This morning I’m watching bands of rain moving south at a rate of at least 15 mph over the Twin Cities. But winds at my house are calm and weather app shows wind velocity of zero. Can you explain this ‘contradiction’ between radar “velocity” and local wind velocities? Thanks much.
Answer: Sure. Reported wind velocities from climate stations in Minnesota are measured by anemometers on a 10 meter tower (about 33 feet above the ground level). Wind direction and velocity varies with height and it is probably the least uniform (most variable) measurement used by meteorologists. Each vertical layer of the atmosphere over us may have a different pattern of pressure differences affecting it, with different size eddies or streams of wind interacting. As a consequence, wind speeds and directions commonly vary with height, and sometimes to an extreme. You can view this by going to one of the National Weather Service web sites that shows the measured wind direction and speed with height.

Twin Cities Almanac for August 19th:
The average MSP high temperature for this date is 80 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 62 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for August 19th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 97 degrees F in 1976; lowest daily maximum temperature of 61 degrees F in 1997; lowest daily minimum temperature of 39 degrees F in 1967; highest daily minimum temperature of 75 degrees F in 1900; record precipitation of 3.19 inches in 1997. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for August 19th is 59°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 76°F in 1998; and the minimum dew point on this date is 33 degrees F in 1950.

All-time state records for August 19th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 107 degrees F at Browns Valley (Traverse County) in 1976. The state record low temperature for this date is 27 degrees F at Tower (St Louis County) in 1977. The state record precipitation for this date is 15.10 inches at Hokah (Houston County) in 2007. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.

Past Weather Features:


August 19, 1976 was the hottest in state history. Most communities reported an afternoon high temperature in the 90s F. A maximum of 100°F or greater occurred in 30 Minnesota counties. The overnight low at Wheaton (Traverse County) only dropped to 81°F.

On August 19, 1977 frosts were reported in portions of St Louis, Roseau, Lake of the Woods, and Marshall Counties. The growing season ended at Tower with a reading of 27°F. 

Fifteen years ago, over August 19-20, 2007 perhaps the most intense flash flood in Minnesota history occurred over portions of Houston, Winona, Olmsted, Fillmore, and Dodge Counties in southeastern Minnesota. Many climate stations reported 8 to 16 inches of rainfall. The town of Rushford (Fillmore County) was entirely inundated with water and residents made their way around to help each other in boats. The Minnesota State Climatology Office provided a complete briefing on this storm.

Outlook: 

Lingering chances for showers and thunderstorms on Saturday with cooler than normal temperatures. A drier pattern will begin on Sunday and last through Wednesday with near normal temperatures. There will be increasing chances for showers and thunderstorms to return by Thursday and Friday of next week.



Mark Seeley

Up and Down Temperatures Start August

2 months ago
Up and Down Temperatures Start August:
Temperatures the first few days of August were highly variable, especially from south to north. Both Redwood Falls (100°F) and Marshall (101°F) reached the century mark on the thermometer on August 2nd, while later that day when so many citizens were out gathering for “National Night Out” an influx of dew points above 70°F raised the Heat Index Values from 102°F to 115°F. Over 50 Minnesota communities reported such high Heat Index Values. The Minnesota DNR State Climatology Office provides a good summary of the temperatures and Heat Index Values for August 2nd.

Then two days later, Kabetogama, Brimson, Tower, and Embarrass were just 44°F on the morning of August 4th. Overall temperatures have been average warmer than normal for the first five days of the month.

In terms of rainfall, most places in the state have reported little so far this month. But both August 1 and August 3 brought widely scattered, but strong thunderstorms to some parts of the state. For those areas affected by these storms, some record or near record daily rainfall amounts were reported, including:
2.56 inches at Chisholm 0.4 WSW
1,74 inches at Two Harbors 9.7 NNE
1.67 inches at Iron Junction 3.4 NNW
1.26 inches at Brimson 2S
1.28 inches at Knife River 1.2 N

Then August 3 brought some heavy rainfalls to a few, including:
1.44 inches at Tower 3S
1.22 inches at Babbitt
1.15 inches at Embarrass
1.06 inches at Wolf Ridge ELC

According to the US Drought Monitor portions of 13 central Minnesota Counties (including the Twin Cities Metro Area0 are in Severe Drought now, while over 25 southern and central counties are in Moderate Drought. Further, according to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, just over a third of the Minnesota corn and soybean crops are rated in poor to just fair condition, mostly as a result of the dryness.

The NOAA Climate Prediction Center models continue to show a likelihood of warmer than normal temperatures and less than normal rainfall prevailing across Minnesota through the first half of August.
Weekly Weather Potpourri: This week NOAA features an interesting article about the effects of El Nino on salmon in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. There are several significant effects that impact the fishing industry.

The United Kingdom Met Office reported this week that the month of July was the driest across England since 1935. Average rainfall across the country was less than one inch. Some parts of southern England reported less than 0.20 inches for the month. As a result watering restrictions were being applied to many areas this month.

According to the Midwest Climate Center the July rainfall totals for portions of eastern Missouri were staggering, and record-setting in many cases. Several climate stations reported monthly total rainfall ranging from 10 inches to over 16 inches. According to NOAA 37 new daily record rainfall amounts were reported form the Missouri climate station network, including 9.20 inches at Elm Point (northwest of St Louis) on July 26th. In addition many climate stations in Kentucky reported record or near-record rainfall totals for July, ranging from 12 to 18 inches. Kentucky remained under a National Weather Service Flood Watch and Flood Advisory through the first week of August, as rains continue there.

An interesting email discussion took place among State Climatologists this week, commenting on the association of high dew point measurements in the Midwestern States during the months of July and August. A research paper in 2007 published by the National Weather Association documented that evapotranspiration of corn and soybean crops can indeed affect local atmospheric moisture conditions, especially when these crops are at full canopy cover and healthy with plenty of rootzone moisture to take up through the roots. High dew points can often occur during this period of time as a result, as peak water use by these crops exceeds the peak water use of native prairie grasses and small grains that used to dominate the Midwestern landscape.

MPR listener question: After hearing you talk about historical rainfall in Itasca County last week, we wondered about August rainfall in the Twin Cities. Can you tell us what years brought the fewest and the most rainy days in August, and what is the average number of rainy days during the month?

Answer: Sure. The most ever rainy days in August for the Twin Cities occurred in 1980 when 18 days brought rain (all light amounts as the monthly total was only 3.26 inches). The wettest August in Twin Cities history was in 2007 with a monthly total of 9.32 inches (10 rainy days, some with heavy rainfall). The fewest number of rainy days in August came in 1925 when only two days brought rain (a meager total of 0.20 inches). August of 1920 was the driest in Twin Cities history. The average number of days that bring rain in August for the Twin Cities is 10.
Twin Cities Almanac for August 5th: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 82 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 64 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for August 5th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 100 degrees F in 1947; lowest daily maximum temperature of 67 degrees F in 1912; lowest daily minimum temperature of 48 degrees F in 1994; highest daily minimum temperature of 78 degrees F in 1947; record precipitation of 1.88 inches in 1898. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for August 5th is 60°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 79°F in 2001; and the minimum dew point on this date is 33 degrees F in 1910.

All-time state records for August 5th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 105 degrees F at New Ulm 2SE (Brown County) in 1947. The state record low temperature for this date is 31 degrees F at Brimson (St Louis County) in 1994. The state record precipitation for this date is 4.75 inches at Albert Lea (Freeborn County) in 1945. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.

Past Weather Features:


Strong thunderstorms brought heavy rains to southern Minnesota on August 5-6, 1898. Climate observers in Rice, Renville, Cottonwood, Kandiyohi, and Brown Counties reported 3 to 5 inches of rainfall. Some farm fields were washed out.

On a statewide basis, August 5, 1947 was the warmest in history for Minnesota. Most places saw afternoon temperatures reach the 90s F, but 9 counties reported a maximum temperature of 100°F or greater. The coolest spot in the state was Grand Marais Harbor with a reading of 62°F.

The morning of August 5, 1994 brought the coolest temperatures ever measured on the date in Minnesota. Many northern communities reported temperatures in the 30s F. Both Tower and Brimson reported just 31°F. The afternoon high temperature at Lutsen only reached 61°F.

Outlook: 

Chance for significant showers and thunderstorms this weekend, especially Saturday and Saturday night. Continued chance for showers on Sunday, but with cooler temperatures. Temperatures will generally be a bit below normal for Monday and Tuesday of next week, then warming up to above normal values by Wednesday and Thursday, as well as going into next weekend.

Mark Seeley

Preliminary Climate Summary for July of 2022

2 months 1 week ago
Preliminary Climate Summary for July of 2022:July of 2022 was a warmer than normal month across most of Minnesota. Most climate observers report an average monthly temperature that ranges from 1°F to 2.5°F above normal. Extremes for the month ranged from 100°F at Granite Falls on the 18th to a morning low of 36°F at Embarrass on the 2nd. Although most July record high values of maximum and minimum temperature date from the 1930s in Minnesota a few climate stations set new daily record maximum temperature values this month, including Theilman (Wabasha County) on July 19th with a reading of 99°F. Some record warm nighttime values of temperature were reported as well, including a reading of 78°F pre-dawn at Baudette on July 20th. Minnesota did not report the nation’s lowest temperature even once during the month.

In terms of rainfall, July brought mostly below average values, but some portions of northwestern, northeastern, and southeastern Minnesota saw above normal accumulations. In the southeast portions of Fillmore and Mower Counties some climate stations received over 10 inches, over twice normal. In the northwest, portions of Kittson County reported 4 to 5 inches, well above normal there, while International Falls reported over 4.5 inches, and in the northeast Hibbing reported nearly 5 inches and Cook and Eveleth reported over 4.5 inches. Somewhat spotty, but severe thunderstorms dropped record daily amounts in a few spots, including 3.09 inches at Rochester on the 23rd, 4.05 inches at Spring Valley (Fillmore County) and 5.25 inches at Grand Meadow (Mower County) on the 24th. Many other climate stations reported less than 1.5 inches for the month.

As a result of the more widespread rainfall deficiency during the month, the area of the state designated to be in drought expanded. Now slightly over 30 percent of Minnesota is designated to be abnormally dry, while portions of 7 counties around the Twin Cities Metro Area and slightly southwest are in Moderate Drought. Crop condition assessments from the USDA put slightly less than two-thirds of the corn and soybean crops in good to excellent condition, a decline of about 25 percentage points since the beginning of the month.

July continued the year-long high frequency of windy days for many areas of the state. Many climate stations reported 10 or more days with wind gusts over 30 mph, while several also reported wind gusts over 40 mph. MSP reported 16 days with wind gusts of 30 mph or greater, while Moorhead reported 14 such days and Duluth 13 days.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:
The National Weather Service Forecast Office in St Louis reported extensively on the historic flash flooding that took place in that vicinity over July 26th (Tuesday). Several observers reported 8-12 inches of rainfall, most of which occurred over an 8 hour period. St Peters, several miles northwest of St Louis reported nearly 13 inches of rainfall. Many roads, highways and portions of interstate were flooded for several hours.

Then on Thursday, July 28th intense thunderstorms brought widespread heavy rainfall to Kentucky causing record-breaking flash flooding. Climate stations in eastern Kentucky reported 4 to 10 inches of rainfall which caused some landslides and power outages as well as flooding. The Weather Underground reported on how unusual this storm system was.

According to the BBC, the United Kingdom Met Office is reporting that the first half of 2022 (Jan-Jun) was the driest in England since 1976. Water conservation practices are being encouraged and a national drought planning and mitigation group is meeting to contemplate what other policies or practices might help. The southeast of England has been especially dry.

MPR listener question: Up hear near Bigfork in Itasca County we have had only 5 small rainfalls this month, which brought less than 1 inch of total rain. We were wondering what is the driest July for our neck of the woods in northern Minnesota?
Answer: Since 1887 there have been five Julys that did not bring even an inch of rainfall to Itasca County. Those were 1894, 1933, 1936, 1939, and 2021. The lowest amount was just 0.49 inches in 1894. There is a pretty good chance you will get a bit more rainfall this weekend to close out the month, so I doubt that you will remain under 1 inch of rainfall for all 31 days of July.
Twin Cities Almanac for July 29th: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 83 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 65 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 29th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 98 degrees F in 1999; lowest daily maximum temperature of 70 degrees F in 1996; lowest daily minimum temperature of 47 degrees F in 1971; highest daily minimum temperature of 80 degrees F in 2006; record precipitation of 1.11 inches in 1989. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for July 29th is 60°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 79°F in 1955; and the minimum dew point on this date is 35 degrees F in 1936.

All-time state records for July 29th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 115 degrees F at Beardsley (Big Stone County) in 1917. The state record low temperature for this date is 25 degrees F at Sawbill Camp (Cook County) in 1935. The state record precipitation for this date is 5.75 inches at Winona Dam (Winona County) in 2011. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.
Past Weather Features:


The warmest July 29 in state history was in 1917 when temperatures over 90°F occurred in almost every corner of the state. Fourteen counties reported temperatures over 100°F, with Beardsley (Big Stone County) reporting the all-time state highest reading of 115°F. For many places event he overnight low temperature remained at 80°F or above.

Most northern Minnesota climate stations reported morning low temperatures in the 30s F on July 29, 1925. In Virginia and Babbitt on the Iron Range, the afternoon high temperature only reached the mid 50s F that day.

On July 29, 1989 strong thunderstorms brought two to four inches of rain to many parts of west-central Minnesota. Some areas reported large hail and high winds as well. But crops generally survived and benefited from the added moisture.

Outlook: 

Mostly sunny and warmer over the weekend, with an increasing chance for showers and thunderstorms on Sunday and Sunday night. A bit cooler on Monday and then a slight chance for showers again for Tuesday through Thursday, but mostly in northern sections of the state. Temperatures will begin warming well above normal next week, especially in southern Minnesota. A generally dry pattern is seen for the first week of August.

Mark Seeley

Drought Expands

2 months 2 weeks ago
Drought Expands:
A few areas of northwestern and southeastern Minnesota benefitted from significant rainfall earlier this week in the form of strong thunderstorms. Some climate stations reported from 1 to 2 inches of rainfall. Ottertail reported a record 1.76 inches on July 17th, while portions of Kittson County (extreme northwestern corner of MN) reported 1.5 to 3 inches on July 20th. But these amounts were exceptional for the week. Most places in the state reported less than 1 inch, and some areas less than a half inch of rainfall for the week.

The widespread sparse rainfall around the state combined with the warmer than normal temperatures brought more stress to crops and expanded the drought area within the state of Minnesota. The July 18th crop reported showed a decline, with 68 percent of the state corn crop in good to excellent condition and only 62 percent of the state soybean crop in good to excellent condition. Two weeks ago these numbers were between 80 and 90 percent.

According to the US Drought Monitor update released on Thursday (July 21) this week, the area of at least Moderate Drought expanded in Minnesota this week to include portions of 14 counties, centered around the Twin Cities Metro Area. Of further notice was the fact that portions of Ramsey, Hennepin, Dakota, Scott, Carver, and Sibley County were place in the Severe Drought Category.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:
The Minnesota State Climatology Office web site features a story about the July 23, 1987 super storm that devastated the Twin Cities Metro Area with record amounts of rainfall. The MSP airport reported nearly 10 inches of rainfall over about a 6 hour period. An observer in Bloomington reported 12.75 inches of rain. Thousands of basements flooded and many roads and highways were closed for a time. There ae many other details of this storm described to mark the 35th anniversary.


The BBC reported this week on the Heat Wave and Wildfires affecting Western Europe this week. Record temperatures were set in many countries ranging from 104°F in the United Kingdom to 111°F in Portugal. The wildfires and record temperatures reached as far east as Italy and Greece.


The Weather Underground reported on the summer Heat Wave in Texas and Oklahoma this summer. Many new record daily high temperatures have been set already and the forecast is for a hot month of August as well. If this pattern persists Texas could record the hottest summer in history.

MPR listener question: This Friday, July 22nd, marks the 50th anniversary of the worst flash food ever experienced in central Minnesota. Can you please comment and describe some of the impact of this flood?
Answer: Yes, I remember former Minnesota State Climatologist Earl Kuehnast calling this the “Grand Daddy” of all flash floods. It was arguably surpassed by the flash flood of August 19-20, 2007 in southeastern Minnesota that almost washed away the town of Rushford. But the July 22, 1972 flood is a life-long traumatic memory for many citizens of central Minnesota.

This flash flood affected primarily the counties of Todd, Morrison, Cass, Crow Wing, Mille Lacs, Aitkin, Isanti, and Kanabec. Most of the rainfall occurred over the period from late afternoon on July 21 to early morning of July 22. Many climate stations reported total rainfalls ranging from 5 to nearly 12 inches. Every major highway from Alexandria east to the Wisconsin border was closed for a period ranging from 3 to 16 days. The estimation of total damages related to this flood amount to about $142 million in today’s dollars. Some farm fields were totally washed away by this storm.

To its’ credit the National Weather Service forecast a chance for thunderstorms and heavy rains that day, but this predates the issuance of a Quantified Precipitation Forecast (QPF) that is used today to estimate the amount of rainfall expected.
Twin Cities Almanac for July 22nd: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 84 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 65 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 22nd:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 105 degrees F in 1934; lowest daily maximum temperature of 64 degrees F in 1992; lowest daily minimum temperature of 49 degrees F in 1947; highest daily minimum temperature of 77 degrees F in 1984; record precipitation of 2.69 inches in 1997. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for July 22nd is 61°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 80°F in 1999; and the minimum dew point on this date is 40 degrees F in 1925.

All-time state records for July 22nd
The state record high temperature for this date is 111 degrees F at Beardsley (Big Stone County) in 1934. The state record low temperature for this date is 31 degrees F at Meadowland (St Louis County) in 1985. The state record precipitation for this date is 1084 inches at Fort Ripley (Crow Wing County) in 1972. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.

Past Weather Features:


July 22, 1934 was the hottest in state history, with over 35 climate stations reported afternoon temperatures of 100°F or greater. The overnight low at Albert Lea was a very uncomfortable 84°F, and many people slept outside.

Northern Minnesota citizens awoke to a nippy, even frosty morning on July 15, 1985. Morning low temperatures were in the 30s F in portions of Carlton, Pine, St Louis, Beltrami, Cass, and Koochiching Counties, with actual frosts at Remer, Tower, and Meadowland.

Outlook: 

Warm with a chance for scattered showers and thunderstorms on Saturday and Saturday night, even carrying over into early Sunday up north. Sunday through Thursday will bring a downturn in temperatures to below normal values. There will also be chances for showers and thunderstorms on Tuesday and Wednesday next week.

Mark Seeley

Moderate Drought Emerging

2 months 3 weeks ago
Moderate Drought Emerging:
According to this week’s US Drought Monitor portions of nine east-central counties in Minnesota (mostly the Twin Cities Metro Area and extending southwest towards Mankato) are now designated to be in Moderate Drought. Many climate stations in this area of the state are reporting total precipitation for the year so far that is 3 to 5 inches less than normal. Some areas around St Peter, Chaska, and Mankato are more than 6 inches behind normal. Bear in mind too, that this follows a drier than normal year in Minnesota (2021).

Though the USDA Agricultural Statistics Service reports that over 80 percent of Minnesota crop production soils are still showing adequate to surplus stored soil moisture, Minnesota crop conditions have declined somewhat. With 66 percent of the state corn crop in good to excellent condition and 63 percent of the state soybean crop in good to excellent condition.

NOAA Climate Prediction Center outlooks continue to favor warmer than normal temperatures and less than normal rainfall through the remainder of July. It is likely the drought area will expand in Minnesota over this time period, but how much remains to be seen.

Rainfall has varied widely this month across the state, from under 1 inch in many areas, to over 4 inches in a few spots, mainly due to passing thunderstorms. Even though Thursday night thunderstorms dropped some heavier rains and even hail in portions of the Red River Valley, and 1 to 2 inches in southeastern Minnesota, most areas of the state missed out on any significant rains. This has been a persistent pattern across the state for a number of weeks. Watering yards and gardens may be more prevalent the remainder of this month.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:
In this week’s AGU-EOS Bulletin there is a very interesting article about the potential impact of climate change on shipping routes through the Arctic’s International Waters. “Controversy over shipping routes in the Arctic Ocean is intensifying in light of recent climate science projections of sea ice melt. By midcentury, ice-free routes in international waters once covered by summer sea ice may appear for the first time in recent history, according to new research. A more accessible Arctic could influence the timing, sustainability, and legal status of international shipping.”


The BBC reported that the Met Office issued its first Extreme Heat Warning for portions of the UK as temperatures are expected to soar into the 90s F, and perhaps reach as high as 40°F (104°F) in places. Much of their infrastructure is not designed for temperatures that high, so health care providers and others are on alert.


The National Hurricane Center is reporting that Hurricane Darby in the Pacific Ocean is expected to weaken into a Tropical Storm before it passes to the south of Hawaii this weekend. At one time winds were over 90 mph.

MPR listener question:
Down here in Nicollet County we are now in a Moderate Drought thanks mostly to little rainfall in June and July. We are wondering how often have we seen Moderate Drought or worse in Nicollet County during the month of July? Thought you would know.
Answer: Historically Moderate Drought or worse prevails as a climate signal in Nicollet County about one year in five. There have been 27 cases of Moderate Drought or worse during July since 1895. Sometimes droughts appear in consecutive years. For example from 1929 to 1940 in Nicollet County at least Moderate Drought occurred in every July, except for 1935 and 1938. The last back-to-back Moderate Droughts in July for Nicollet County were 2006 and 2007

Twin Cities Almanac for July 15th: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 84 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 66 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 15th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 102 degrees F in 1988; lowest daily maximum temperature of 63 degrees F in 1962; lowest daily minimum temperature of 49 degrees F in 1912; highest daily minimum temperature of 79 degrees F in 1988; record precipitation of 1.87 inches in 1907. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for July 15th is 62°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 77°F in 1988; and the minimum dew point on this date is 43 degrees F in 1920.

All-time state records for July 15th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 112 degrees F at Beardsley (Big Stone County) in 1931. The state record low temperature for this date is 30 degrees F at Alborn (St Louis County) in 1930. The state record precipitation for this date is 7.37 inches at New Ulm (Brown County) in 1916. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.

Past Weather Features:


This week in 1916 brought a serious of severe thunderstorms across southern Minnesota that delivered 3 to 6 inches of rainfall. Some crop fields were washed out around New Ulm where one observer reported nearly 8 inches of rain.

The warmest July 15th in state history was in 1931. Afternoon temperatures were 90°F or greater in just about every corner of the state, while in 13 counties temperatures of 100°F or greater were reported.

Campers awoke to a cool, even frosty morning, on July 15, 1973 when temperatures across northern Minnesota ranged from 32°F to 39°F. After starting out at 32°F at Tower, the afternoon temperature climbed to 67°F.

Outlook: 

The weekend will start out with a chance for isolated showers and thunderstorms on Saturday, then a warming trend will begin on Sunday. Temperatures are expected to be warmer than normal for the balance of next week. It will also be mostly dry, with a slight chance for widely scattered showers and thunderstorms later on Monday and Tuesday.

Mark Seeley

Spotty Rainfall Pattern This Month

2 months 4 weeks ago
Spotty Rainfall Pattern This Month:
July has begun with generally warmer than normal temperatures over much of the state, and several days with dew points in the sticky upper 60s F or low 70s F. Rainfall has been below normal in most areas of the state, but some have seen heavy thunderstorms deliver over 2 inches of rain through the first week of the month. The heaviest rains occurred over several southern counties near the Iowa border, though there were some significant rainfalls (over 1 inch) in north-central and northeastern counties as well.
Some record rainfalls for July 5th included:
3.16 inches at Worthington
2.40 inches at Kabetogama
1.91 inches at Austin
1.33 inches at Owatonna
1.30 inches at Spring Valley

Then on July 6th some other long term climate stations reported record rainfalls as well, including:
3.35 inches at Bricelyn
2.80 inches at Worthington
2.16 inches at Blue Earth
2.09 inches at Hokah
1.80 inches at St James

According to the U.S. Drought Monitor all or part of 24 central and southern counties in Minnesota are abnormally dry, with portions of Faribault County in Moderate Drought. According to the NOAA Climate Prediction Center most medium range forecast models favor drier than normal conditions for Minnesota through July 21st. Thankfully according to the USDA NASS reports 75 to 80 percent of Minnesota is still showing adequate to surplus stored soil moisture for crops.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:
According to the BBC Italy has declared a state of emergency in five northern regions surrounding the Po River because of the worst drought in 70 years. Water rationing is a policy being used in many municipalities, while a significant area of agriculture is expected to see reduced production. About a third of Italy’s agricultural production comes from the Po Valley.

According to a recent study published in Geophysical Research Letters, the Arctic region of the Northern Hemisphere is warming at a pace that is 4 times faster than the rest of the globe. They point out the one period of rapid warming around 1986 was due to external forcing of the climate, while another rapid warming around 1999 was due to internal forcing. The climate models did not pick up this measured variation in the data.

AGU offers an online quiz for those who wish to test their knowledge about Earth and space science. The quiz is based on science news from the most recent months and covers a broad range of topics,

MPR listener question:
From a climate perspective can you explain why most cities in Minnesota recommend watering gardens and lawns in the early morning or late evening hours?

Answer: Measurements from several climate stations across the state show that the hourly rate of evaporation from both vegetation and soils varies immensely. Afternoon hourly evaporation rates can be ten times or more higher than those in the early morning or late evening. So in terms of delivering water to be stored in the soil and used by lawns and gardens it is much more efficient to utilize the morning or evening hours. In addition, wind speeds tend to be lower in the early morning or late evening hours, so that if you use sprinkler systems, you achieve better distribution of the water that is applied.

During the summer season there is also generally a higher probability for shower activity in the afternoon and early evening, than there is in the morning. Plants can more efficiently use the moisture from watering to grow in the morning than the afternoon and evening.
Twin Cities Almanac for July 8th: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 84 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 65 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 8th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 101 degrees F in 1974; lowest daily maximum temperature of 65 degrees F in 1997; lowest daily minimum temperature of 51 degrees F in 1958; highest daily minimum temperature of 82 degrees F in 1936; record precipitation of 3.07 inches in 1925. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for July 8th is 58°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 78°F in 1916; and the minimum dew point on this date is 34 degrees F in 2001.

All-time state records for July 8th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 110 degrees F at Fosston (Polk County) in 1936. The state record low temperature for this date is 25 degrees F at Kelliher (Beltrami County) in 2003. The state record precipitation for this date is 6.03 inches at White Rock Dam (Traverse County) in 1950. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.
Past Weather Features:


By far the warmest July 8th in state history was in 1936 when. Everywhere in the state except Grand Marais reported afternoon temperatures in the 90s F or higher. Over 40 climate stations reported a maximum temperature of 100°F or greater. The overnight low at Albert Lea was 83°F.

Severe thunderstorms developed over southeastern Minnesota on July 8, 1955. Many areas reported 2 to 4 inches of rain with some localized flooding of roads and highways. Portions of Goodhue, Dakota, and Carver Counties reported over 5 inches of rainfall. Several climate stations in Minnesota ended up reporting over 10 inches of rainfall in July of 1955.

July 8, 1961 brought a chilly morning for campers in northern Minnesota. In St Louis, Cass, Carlton, Beltrami, and Itasca Counties temperatures were in the 30s F. At Cook in St Louis County the temperature started out in the morning at freezing (32°F) but warmed up to 81°F by late afternoon.

Outlook: 

Continued dry into the weekend with near seasonal temperatures. A good chance for scattered showers and thunderstorms Sunday and Monday, some of which could be severe. Then drier for Tuesday through Thursday next week, with near seasonal temperatures. A warming trend is seen towards next weekend.

Mark Seeley

June Climate Summary

3 months ago
June Climate Summary:
June was uniformly warmer than normal across the state, breaking the cooler trend that dominated most of the first 5 months of the year. Average monthly temperatures ranged from 1°F to 4°F across the state. A few places in the far north like International Falls reported a mean monthly temperature that was very close to normal.

Extremes for the month ranged from 102°F at St James (Watonwan County), Sabin (Clay County), and Crookston (Polk County) on June 20th to 29°F at Celina (St Louis County) on June 5th. The reading at Celina was the coldest in the nation for that date. With the warmer than normal temperatures on most days, there were 91 daily record high maximum temperatures reported in the Minnesota climate station network, and 98 daily record warm minimum temperatures reported (several nights in the 70s F). Interestingly enough, on June 5th, Grand Marais reported a daily high of only 47°F which was a record cold maximum temperature for the date.

As for June rainfall around the state, reports were highly variable. Most climate observers reported less than normal rainfall for the month, with many reporting less than 1 inch. Some of these included:
0.58 inches at Kimball (Stearns County)
0.66 inches at Downtown St Paul Airport (Holman Field)
0.68 inches at Browns Valley (Traverse County)
0.87 inches at Redwood Falls (Redwood County)

The readings at Kimball and Downtown St Paul are the lowest June rainfall in their climate record, while the rainfall total at Redwood Falls is the 2nd driest June in their climate record, and the total at Browns Valley is the 4th driest June for them.

Conversely, a number of places reported a wetter than normal June, mostly thanks to some heavy thunderstorms. Climate stations in Houston, Otter Tail, Stearns, and Crow Wing Counties reported over 7 inches of rainfall for the month, while a number of others reported over 6 inches. Thunderstorms produced 20 new daily record rainfalls reported in the Minnesota climate station network, including 4.76 inches at Ottertail on June 25th.

Thanks to over 85 percent of the state reporting adequate to surplus soil moisture and above normal temperatures, crop growth progressed well during the month in most places. Inadequate rainfall caused the US Drought Monitor to place portions of Freeborn and Faribault Counties in south-central Minnesota into the Moderate Drought category.

Like earlier months of the year, June was windy. Many climate stations reported higher than normal wind speeds, with half of the days during the month showing wind gusts of 30 mph or greater, and some days over 50 mph.

Following the very high incidence of severe weather reports during May, there was little let up in June across the state. Over six dates (June 12, 14, 20, 23, and 25) the NOAA Storm Prediction Center received reports of 9 tornadoes in Minnesota, along with 86 reports of large hail, and 154 reports of damaging winds. Most of these were in northern and central counties.

The Minnesota DNR State Climatology Office offered many detailed commentaries and analyses of these storms on their web site.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:
This week’s AGU-EOS Bulletin features an article about air pollution in China. Efforts in recent years to mitigate air pollution in China have been successful to some extent, but the measured levels of fine particulates in the atmosphere are still up to 7 times greater than the healthy guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization.


The BBC reported this week that a widespread June Heat Wave in Western Europe broke many temperature records. Banak, Norway reported a daily maximum temperature of 91°F on June 29th, setting a record for the highest temperature ever recorded inside the Arctic Circle over Western Europe. Poland, Germany, Croatia, and Slovenia also reported several new high temperature records. In Tunisia of North Africa a record daily high temperature of 120°F was reported.

MPR listener question:
I live in Woodbury and it seems like many storms that come from the west or northwest, tend to dissipate when they get to the Twin Cities and then reform east of the St. Croix River in Western Wisconsin. I am wondering if the “Heat Island” of the Twin Cities causes these storms to scatter or dissipate? Or, is there some other natural phenomena that is occurring?
Answer: Over the last 5 decades or so many atmospheric and climate scientists have studied to rainfall patterns associated with storms that pass across large urban areas. Many names come to mind, including Marshall Shepherd, Stan Changnon, Floyd Huff, Julie Winkler, and Roger Pielke Sr. These studies all found that the low-level inflow into thunderstorms that pass over urban areas is broken up or disrupted by the structural composition of the landscape (called surface roughness), and further the inflow of air does not contain as much water vapor as the surrounding landscape where the thunderstorms may have formed. As a result, the thunderstorm cells may dissipate or lose continuity. Then on the downwind side of the urban area, the surface inflow may converge, strengthen, and become more uniform again causing the thunderstorm rainfall to intensify. These dynamics are likely in play concerning some of your observations of recent Twin Cities rainfall patterns. Scale is a factor here as well. In large, complex thunderstorm systems the disruption caused by urban areas can be of little significance.

Twin Cities Almanac for July 1st:
The average MSP high temperature for this date is 83 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 65 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 1st:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 100 degrees F in 1883; lowest daily maximum temperature of 60 degrees F in 1945; lowest daily minimum temperature of 46 degrees F in 1995; highest daily minimum temperature of 80 degrees F in 2002; record precipitation of 2.85 inches in 1997. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for July 1st is 58°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 78°F in 1916; and the minimum dew point on this date is 34 degrees F in 2001.

All-time state records for July 1st:
The state record high temperature for this date is 103 degrees F at Fergus Falls (Otter Tail County) in 1921. The state record low temperature for this date is 30 degrees F at Brimson (St Louis County) in 1988. The state record precipitation for this date is 8.00 inches at Theilman (Wabasha County) in 1978. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.

Past Weather Features:


July 1, 1911 brought temperatures of 90°F to 100°F to practically every corner of Minnesota. Seven counties reported temperatures of 100°F or greater. Overnight lows only dropped into the upper 70s F to low 80s F in many places. Two Harbors was the cool spot in the state with an afternoon high of 69°F.

On the morning of July 1, 1969 many Minnesota campers woke up to morning temperatures in the 30s F. There were frosts reported in Itasca, Cass, Becker, and St Louis Counties. The daily high only reached 60°F at Grand Marais.

Strong thunderstorms brought heavy rains to portions of southeastern Minnesota over July 1-2 of 1978. Many areas reported 4 to 7 inches of rain, while portions of Wabasha and Goodhue Counties reported over 9 inches. The Zumbro River flooded Rochester and other communities.

Outlook: 

Cooler on Saturday with temperatures near or slightly below normal. Chance for scattered showers and thunderstorms. Warmer for Sunday through Tuesday with a continued chance for widely scattered showers and thunderstorms. Then somewhat cooler for Tuesday through Thursday. Temperatures will warm up towards the end of next week.

Mark Seeley

Record Warm Max/Min Temperatures on June 20-21

3 months 1 week ago
Record Warm Max/Min Temperatures on June 20-21:The National Weather Service Excessive Heat Warnings and Heat Advisories that blanketed the state on June 20th this week certainly were validated by the climate data. With dew points in the upper 60s to low 70s F and air temperatures from the mid 90s F to slightly over 100°F, Heat Index Values soared, ranging from 100°F to 110°F in places. There were at least 17 daily high maximum temperature records set or tied within the state climate network. Some of these included:
102°F at Crookston
101°F at MSP and St Cloud
100°F at Benson and Browns Valley
99°F at Milan and Wheaton
98°F at Melrose
97°F at Red Lake Falls and Gaylord
96°F at Brainerd
95°F at Walker

The Minnesota DNR State Climatology Office provided a more detailed analysis of these warm and recording setting temperatures as well.

In addition, the high dew points held up the overnight minimum temperature values, many of which set records for warmth. Within the state climate network, there were at least 30 warm minimum temperature records set or tied. Some of these included:
79°F at MSP and Milan
78°F at Marshall, Benson, and Brwons Valley
77°F at Collegeville, Gaylord, Mora, Pipestone, Tracy, and Wheaton
76°F at Crookston
63°F at Tower (usually one of the coldest spots in Minnesota)

After a relatively cool first half of June, temperatures since June 19th have averaged about 10 to 12 degrees F above normal around the state and most of the rest of June will see daily temperatures at least a few degrees warmer than normal.

The warmer than normal temperatures have been coupled with spotty rainfall across the state. Though most areas of the state are reporting below normal rainfall, some northern climate stations reported heavy thunderstorm rainfall on June 20 or 21, including:
2.67 inches at Isle (Aitkin County)
2.25 inches at Brainerd (Crow Wing County)
1.86 inches at International Falls (Koochiching County)
1.81 inches at Wright (Carlton County)
1.58 inches at Cass Lake (Cass County)
1.52 inches at Leech Lake (Cass County)
1.38 inches at Cloquet (Carlton County)

Yet, more heavy rainfall reports came into the State Climatology Office from strong thunderstorms across central Minnesota counties over June 23-24. Many observers reported amounts ranging from 2 inches to 5 inches.

The US Drought Monitor reported east-central and south-central counties of Minnesota are in the abnormally dry category now and would benefit from surplus rainfall. Meanwhile, according to the National Agricultural Statistics Service Weekly Crop Condition Report for Minnesota over 75 percent of Minnesota soils show adequate stored soil moisture, and 17 percent show surplus stored soil moisture. So crops should not be at risk of moisture stress for a while.

Weekly Weather Potpourri: This week’s AGU-EOS Bulletin features an interesting article about the lack of quality climate data and communications systems impeding the analysis of weather patterns in Malawi, Madagascar, and Mozambique, as well as the transmission of warnings when severe weather threatens. Models suggest that these three countries are vulnerable to more frequent intense rainfalls as a result of climate change. But study of the historical context is almost impossible because of the lack of good, long-term climate stations.

Reuters reported this week that strong monsoon winds helped trigger drenching rainfalls over Bangladesh that produced widespread flooding. Millions of people were displaced and up to 30 deaths reported. Some scientists suggest that increased rainfall intensities in the area are clearly a result of climate change.

Earlier this week, Linda Lam with the Weather Channel reported on the hottest temperatures ever observed in each state. It is an interesting article that shows how the western states can be so much warmer than the eastern states under extreme conditions. But what is not accounted for is the Heat Index which factors in humidity.

MPR listener question: After learning earlier this week that the Twin Cities climate record back to 1873 (150 years) shows only 67 days when the temperature reached 100°F or greater, we wondered where in the state has the highest historical frequency of 100°F temperatures. We thought you’d know.
Answer: There are five places in west-central Minnesota with relatively long climate records that show the highest historical frequency of daily maximum temperatures of 100°F or greater.

Beardsley (Big Stone County) and Browns Valley (Traverse County) combined have a 129 year climate record with 291 reports of daily maximum temperatures of 100°F or greater.
Canby (Yellow Medicine County) has a 107 year climate record with 191 such reports.
Milan (Chippewa County) has a 129 year climate record with 166 such reports.
Montevideo (Chippewa County) has a 131 year climate record with 135 such reports.
Madison (Lac Qui Parle County) has a 83 year climate record with 95 such reports.

I might further add that Madison, MN reported 24 days with daily maximum temperatures of 100°F or greater during the drought summer of 1988, and Beardsley reported 21 days with 100°F during the drought summer of 1936.

Twin Cities Almanac for June 24th: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 81 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 63 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for June 24th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 101 degrees F in 1988; lowest daily maximum temperature of 59 degrees F in 1928; lowest daily minimum temperature of 44 degrees F in 1972; highest daily minimum temperature of 76 degrees F in 1954; record precipitation of 2.36 inches in 1911. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for June 24th is 55°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 75°F in 2003; and the minimum dew point on this date is 29 degrees F in 1972.

All-time state records for June 24th: The state record high temperature for this date is 110 degrees F at Browns Valley (Traverse County) in 1988. The state record low temperature for this date is 20 degrees F at Remer (Cass County) in 1985. The state record precipitation for this date is 7.60 inches at Browns Valley (Traverse County) in 2003. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.
Past Weather Features:
June 24, 1985 brought morning low temperatures in the 30s to much of Minnesota. Observers at Tower, Remer, and Cotton reported frosts. The daytime high at Tower only reached 63°F.

The year 1988 brought the hottest June 24th in state history with over 30 Minnesota climate stations reporting an afternoon high of 100°F or greater. The coolest spot in the state was Grand Marais Harbor with a reading of 53°F.

An onslaught of thunderstorms brought damaging winds, tornadoes, hail, and flooding rains to many central Minnesota counties over June 21-25, 2003. Many observers reported over 6 inches of rain, and several reported over 8 inches. A tornado on June 24th caused a great deal of damage in Buffalo Lake (Renville County). Many farm fields were also flooded out by the heavy rains. The DNR State Climatology Office wrote up a detailed report of this storm.

Outlook:
A good chance for showers and thunderstorms across the state on Saturday, some lingering through early Sunday in northern sections of the state. Somewhat cooler temperatures next week, closer to normal or a few degrees above normal for this time of year. Chance for widely scattered showers on Tuesday and Wednesday.

Mark Seeley

Expected Turn Around in Weather Pattern

3 months 2 weeks ago
Expected Turn Around in Weather Pattern:
Although the first two weeks of June generally brought cooler than normal temperatures to Minnesota, following a dominant pattern of previous months, it appears that an abrupt turn around is about to occur. The first phase of this was the short-lived pulse of very warm and humid air that dominated the state this week on Tuesday (June 14). At least 60 climate stations reported afternoon high temperatures in the 90s F. Some even reported record highs for the date, including:
Theilman (Wabasha County) with 99°F
St Cloud, Caledonia, and Minnesota City with 95°F
La Crescent (Winona County) with 94°F
Brainerd with 91°F

Dew points climbed into the upper 60s and low 70s F pushing Heat Index Values from 98°F to 103°F, as the National Weather Service issued Heat Advisories for many counties. It definitely looks like more of this pattern will visit us beginning this weekend.

Most of the NOAA Outlook Models suggest a warmer than normal weather pattern will prevail across Minnesota for the rest of June. This will be sufficient to offset the cooler than normal start to the month, I expect that June will end up be at least a few degrees warmer than normal, probably in the neighborhood of 2.5 to 3.5°F above normal. Remember last June was 5 to 6°F above normal and the 3rd warmest in state history.

Not only is the temperature trend going to turn around for the month of June, but it appears it will turn around for the balance of summer. The outlook for the months of July, August, and September favors above normal temperatures for most of Minnesota. Interestingly enough, the outlook also favors a drier than normal weather pattern for the balance of summer, but confidence is not as great in that portion of the outlook.

Weekly Weather Potpourri: The severe flooding and closure of Yellowstone National Park made weather headlines this week. The Weather Underground reported on details about this, as at least 10,000 visitors were evacuated from the park due to dangerous flooding conditions. Many areas that feed the rivers in Yellowstone received 3-5 inches of rainfall last weekend, and that combined with 3-5 inches of runoff from winter snowpack to produce flood crests on the rivers. Some areas around Yellowstone reported 120 to 180 inches of snowfall this past winter season. Even more discussion of the climate features that contributed to this historic flooding can be found at the CNN web site.


The BBC reported this week on an early summer Heat Wave that is affected portions of Western Europe as well, and it is expected to linger into the weekend. Both Madrid, Spain and Bordeaux, France reached a high of 102°F earlier this week, while in southern France high temperatures up to 104°F were reported for the first time so early in the summer.. The Heat Wave is expected to break later this weekend.


The Committed to Climate and Energy Education Program (CLEAN) has a new online learning module called “Global and Great Lakes Climate Change.” Intended for students in the middle grades (6-8) this activity concentrates on the analysis of local and global temperature anomaly data that reveals warming trends. Emphasis is on the Great Lakes Region and potential impacts. The full activity takes between 50 and 100 minutes to finish.

MPR listener question: When the dew point climbed to 72°F this week in the Twin Cities it made me feel a bit like home, as I moved here from Louisiana seven years ago. We commonly had dew points in that range down there. What is the highest dew point for the Twin Cities in the month of June?
Answer: The highest dewpoint for MSP during this month is 80°F on June 22, 1983. In fact that was one of the first ever dew point readings that high in the climate history of the state. The Heat Index reached 105°F that day as well.
Twin Cities Almanac for June 17th: The average MSP high temperature for this date is 80 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 61 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for June 17th:

MSP records for this date: highest daily maximum temperature of 97 degrees F in 1933; lowest daily maximum temperature of 54 degrees F in 1876; lowest daily minimum temperature of 42 degrees F in 1960; highest daily minimum temperature of 75 degrees F in 1921; record precipitation of 1.72 inches in 1873. No snow has been reported on this date.

Average dew point for June 17th is 55°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 73°F in 2002; and the minimum dew point on this date is 20 degrees F in 1972.

All-time state records for June 17th:
The state record high temperature for this date is 102 degrees F at Campbell (Wilin County) in 1933. The state record low temperature for this date is 22 degrees F at Tower (St Louis County) in 2000. The state record precipitation for this date is 8.67 inches at Minneota (Lyon County) in 1957. No measurable snowfall has occurred on this date.

Past Weather Features:
Over 80 percent of the state landscape baked in 90 degrees heat on June 17, 1933. Nine counties reported afternoon temperatures of 100°F or greater. The overnight low in Chaska was a tropical-like 75°F.

Probably the coldest June 17th morning was in 2000 when frosts were reported in parts of Pine, Carlton, and St Louis Counties. Temperatures were in the 20s F in both Tower and Embarrass, while the daily high temperature at Isabella (Lake County) only reached 49°F.

June 17, 2010 brought a historic outbreak of tornadoes to Minnesota, 48 such storms in all. Over a six-hour period beginning just before 3:30 PM, 48 tornadoes affected 22 counties in northwestern, west-central, central, east-central, south-central, and southeastern Minnesota. An EF-4 (165 mph winds or greater) tornado ripped through Wadena, severely damaging the high school and many homes. The National Weather Service was challenged to keep up with timely warnings during this stormy period, but did an outstanding job. A more detailed report on this storm can be found at the State Climatology Office web site.

Outlook: Sunny and warmer for Saturday, then relatively hot temperatures with higher dew points take over for Sunday through Tuesday in most places except the far northeastern counties. Temperatures will average well above normal. There will be a chance for showers and thunderstorms this weekend across northern sections of the state, and then in the southern parts of the state by Wednesday. It will be somewhat cooler but still above normal the end of next week.

Mark Seeley
Checked
22 hours 54 minutes ago
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